Archived data from 2016-2023

75. Panama 50.65

75th National Cyber Security Index
103rd Global Cybersecurity Index
94th ICT Development Index
75th Networked Readiness Index
Population 3.8million
Area (km2) 75.4thousand
GDP per capita ($) 25.7thousand
NCSI Update Data source
29 Sep 2022 Public data collection

Version 29 Sep 2022

  • 9. Cyber incidents response 3/6 50%
    6 50%
  • 10. Cyber crisis management 3/5 60%
    5 60%
  • 11. Fight against cybercrime 9/9 100%
    9 100%
    • 11.1. Cybercrimes are criminalised 1

      Cybercrimes are defined by legislation.

      Accepted references

      Legal act


      “The offenses related to the use of information and communication technologies that are sanctioned and punished under Panama’s Criminal Code of April 26, 2010 are the following:

      • Seize or improperly reporting the content of a letter, email, statement or telefax (Art. 164 of the Criminal Code)
      • Removing, destroying, concealing, misleading, intercepting or blocking a letter, statement or telefax (Art. 165 of the Criminal Code)
      • Publicly disclosing correspondence, recording or private documents and personal information without the corresponding authorization and not intended for marketing purposes and resulting in damages (Art. 166 of the Criminal Code)
      • Interception of telecommunications or use of technical devices for listening, transmitting, recording or reproducing conversations not directed to the public without authorization of the judicial authority (Art. 167 of the Criminal Code)
      • Facilitating, instigating, recruiting or organizing any form of sexual exploitation of children or persons with disabilities (Art. 180 of the Criminal Code)
      • Facilitating and promoting sexual tourism with children in national territory (Art. 181 of the Criminal Code)
      • Manufacturing, producing, offering, trading, publishing, broadcasting or distributing pornographic material via the Internet or any mass media or national or international information where children are shown engaging in real or simulated sexual activities (Art. 184 of the Criminal Code)
      • Possession of pornographic material pertaining to children (Art. 185 of the Criminal Code)
      • Using, consenting or allowing children to engage in acts of indecent exposure or pornography photographed, filmed or recorded by any means, as well as inciting or promoting online sex with minors through the Internet (Art. 187 of the Criminal Code)
      • Theft and computer fraud (Art. 220 of the Criminal Code)
      • Identity theft of a person in order to turn a profit (Art. 221 of the Criminal Code)
      • Consuming or receiving signals of telecommunications, video, computer terminal cable, satellite, or altering or manipulating any element of measurement or control (Arts. 224 and 225 of the Criminal Code)
      • Amending, modifying or manipulating programs, databases, computer systems or networks in the detriment of a third party
      • Seizing or making unduly use or cause the illegal transfer of money, securities, property or financial resources of a bank, finance company or any other entity dealing or intermediating with public financial resources of the public through information, fraud or technological media manipulation. (Art. 243 of the Criminal Code)
      • Destroying, concealing or misrepresenting accounting books and records and financial statements of individuals or companies in order to obtain, maintain or extend a credit facility or capital from a bank or financial entity or any other dealing or intermediating with financial resources from the public. (Art. 244 of the Criminal Code)
      • Transfer, storage and trading of securities, property and financial resources arising from illegal activities. (Art. 254 of the Criminal Code)
      • Crimes against intellectual property. (Art. 262 to 266 of the Criminal Code)
      • Crimes against industrial property rights. (Art. 267 to 273 of the Criminal Code)
      • Misuse, forgery, modification or cloning of credit and debit cards including the transfer for illicit purposes. (Art. 287 of the Criminal Code)
      • Disclosure of business secrets through the seizure of data, information and computer support (Art. 288 of the Criminal Code)
      • Illicit access to databases, computer systems or networks. (Art. 289 of the Criminal Code)
      • Copying, using or modifying, interfering with, intercepting or hindering databases or information systems of public, private or mixed institutions, banks, insurance companies and other financial and securities institutions and the aggravation of conducts when the acts are committed by individuals in charge of the database or the computer system. (Art. 290, 291 and 292 of the Criminal Code)
      • Damage to critical infrastructure, including telecommunications signals, cable, Internet and fiber optic. (Art. 298 of the Criminal Code)
      • Conduct or join a global organization devoted to trafficking of persons  (Art. 442 of the Criminal Code)

      Cited source (CoE) can be accessed here.

    • 11.2. Cybercrime unit 3

      There is a government entity with a specific function of combatting cybercrime.

      Accepted references

      Official website or legal act


      "There are two agencies responsible for the coordination and judicial investigation of cyber crime. These agencies are the Deputy Prosecutor for Crimes against Intellectual Property and Information Security of the Attorney General's Office conformed by the Public Prosecutor (Ministerio Público) and the Directorate for Judicial Investigation of the National Police. A specialized investigating unit on computer crime was recently created within the Directorate for Judicial Investigation and it is under current development. Such specialized investigating unit will provide capacity and training to conduct investigations and digital forensics activities."

    • 11.3. Digital forensics unit 3

      There is a government entity with a specific function of digital forensics.

      Accepted references

      Official website or legal act


      Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences (Instituto de Medicina Legal Y Ciencias Forenses), Computer Forensics Section

      "The work of the Computer Forensics Section focuses on digital forensic examination and the application of specialized scientific and analytical techniques to technological infrastructure, to identify, preserve, analyze and present data that is valid within a legal process.

      Such techniques include reconstructing the IT asset, examining residual data, authenticating data, and explaining the technical characteristics of the use applied to the data and IT assets.

      Computer experts make use of technology to maintain the integrity of data and their processing, which requires specialization and advanced knowledge in computing and systems (software, hardware, networks, security, hacking, etc.). cracking, information recovery.)

      This section helps to detect clues about computer attacks, information theft, conversations or clues from emails, chats."

      Law No. 69 of 2007

      Article 1

      "(…) The Directorate of Judicial Investigation is a specialized unit of the National Police, with exclusive functions of judicial investigation police, which will have the necessary administrative, operational and technical units to fulfil their functions.”

      Article 21

      "The Departments of Criminalists, Expert Services and Forensic Science Laboratories of the current Judicial Technical Police are transferred to the Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences (…)"

    • 11.4. 24/7 contact point for international cybercrime 2

      The government has designated an international 24/7 contact point for cybercrimes.

      Accepted references

      Official website or legal act


      Judicial Investigation Unit, National Central Bureau of Interpol.

  • 12. Military cyber operations 1/6 17%
    6 17%
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Silvia Batista
Radu Serrano
Project Manager at eGA